The Chachapoya Culture


Richard Franklin Bishop


© Copyright 2016 by Richard Franklin  Bishop      

Photo of a Chachapoya building.

Why is it that we who live in the Americas just can’t bring ourselves to believe that once upon a time there were brave people who decided to “go for it” and actually made it across the Atlantic to the “new World” -- before the Vikings ? Perhaps it’s because no one has ever stepped forward with convincing evidence for such an adventure. With all Academia staunchly set against the idea, the proof would have to be the “irresistible force against an immovable object”.

Fans of Pedro Álvares Cabral (Brazil discovery date: 1500 A.D.) are especially sensitive to any research that would tend to overshadow his celebrated but involuntary storm-tossed landing in present-day Brazil made accidently while attempting to circumnavigate Africa.

Fans of Christopher Columbus (New World discovery date: 1492 A.D.) are a little less rabid on the subject but band together steady as a rock in denying that anyone but the Vikings could have landed in the Americas earlier.

But now, I’ve come around to agreeing with the late Dr. Cyrus H. Gordon, who asserted in his book, Before Columbus (Crown Publishers, New York, 1971), that there were scores of ancient visits to the “new world” and that many of them were on purpose -- not just accidental; probably seeking natural resources such as gold or silver or tin or iron ore -- whatever the technology of the times required. In the 27 years from 1971 to 1998, I had read many treatises on the subject, but, my breath was taken away when I absorbed and realized the import of the words from Page 109, ESOP Volume # 23, 1998, "A Curious Element in Uto-Aztecan" by Brian Darrel Stubbs:

"In looking at the globe, one can see that the shortest distance from Africa to the America (2,920 km*) is shorter (by 810 km*) than the length of the Mediterranean Sea (3,730 km*)."

That was 18 years ago, and my thinking is still driven strongly by the revelation of these words. And further, to say that the large ocean-going ships of Biblical Tarshish, of the Greeks or the Phoenicians or the Egyptians or the Persians or the Veneti** (a Celtic tribe of Brittany, France) would be afraid to tackle such a trip is ridiculous. Why?, because: (1) their ships were larger than those of Columbus and (2) it is now evident from the Piri Reis Map of 1513 that the calculation of Longitude was possible long before Columbus. The mariners of ancient times have never been given “due credit.”

* Distances calculated by: Der große National Geographic 3-D Globus, German Version, 2009, and were added, in parentheses, by this Author.

** From The Battle of Morbihan, 56 B.C., by Julius Caesar. Commentarii de Bello Gallico 3:8: The Veneti evidently had close relations with Bronze Age Britain; Julius Caesar describes how the Veneti sailed to Britain. They controlled the tin trade from mining in Cornwall and Devon. The Veneti built their ships of oak with large transoms fixed by iron nails of a thumb's thickness. They navigated and powered their ships through the use of leather sails. This made their ships strong, sturdy and structurally sound, capable of withstanding the harsh conditions of the Atlantic. Caesar directed his men to build ships. However, his galleys were at a serious disadvantage compared to the far thicker Veneti ships. The thickness of their ships meant they were resistant to ramming, whilst their greater height meant they could shower the Roman ships with projectiles, and even overthrow the wooden turrets which Caesar had added to his bulwarks. The Veneti manoeuvred so skilfully under sail that boarding was impossible. These factors, coupled with their intimate knowledge of the coast and tides, put the Romans at a disadvantage (Wikipedia).

I think all our disbeliefs will change, soon. This is because 18 years ago, a Professor who’s been called a “cultural theorist” and had taught for the Universities of Gottingen and Hildesheim (now retired after 35 years of teaching) set the World on its ear by highlighting a strange South American culture almost hidden in the high Andes; in the foggy crags and peaks of northwestern Peru. His name is Dr. Hans Giffhorn and he and his cameraman, Jochen Phillip, had been hunting in 1998 for a rare hummingbird found only there. While filming, they stumbled upon several features of an ancient culture, now extinct, which the Incas had called Chachapoya (Fog or Cloud warriors) that aroused their “detective” instincts.

Dr. Giffhorn wrote and published a book in 2013 (now in its first revision and dated 2014). It is entitled: Wurde Amerika in der Antike entdeckt? Karthager, Kelten und das Rätsel der Chachapoya (Was America Discovered in Ancient Times? Carthaginians, Celts and the Riddle of the Chachapoya), ( € 18.95, available from, © Verlag C.H. Beck oHG , Munich, 2014. On Page 9 of his book, Dr. Hans Giffhorn summed up the World “status quo” pretty well, as translated:

A connection between the ancient cultures of the Mediterranean and the cultures of the New World has never existed, and all early civilizations of South America emerged without any influence from the Old World. The cultural policy of the Latin American countries and the International experts agree on this.”

Notwithstanding, he asserts that the “several features” that he stumbled onto are really valid existing coincidences that he has researched and are the solid proof that we have been looking for. The sources of the “several features” could only have been the “old World” in ancient times. In other words, the “several features” point to known Mediterranean sources and could not have happened in splendid isolation to the heirs of the Bering Sea migration over the Ice-Age bridge near Alaska, as we have been repeatedly told.

These Chachapoya were a culture whose descendants are now found in northeast Peru in a large area 300 Kilometers (188 miles) north-south direction and 230 Kilometers (144 miles) east-west direction (27,072 square miles); mostly in the western part of the Province of Amazonas. It goes without saying that the Andes topography of this area contains vertical cliffs and other hair-raising straight-up and down trails. Everywhere were terraces and irrigation systems for a productive agriculture (the Spanish conquerors had let the systems run down and the terraces disappeared and the land now supports only a small percent of what it had 500 to 1,000 years before). Since 1843, other researchers and Academics have published papers and books about this ancient culture whose traces are to be seen in Peru high up in the Andes. But, perhaps none has been so persistent and vocal using modern media means as has Dr. Hans Giffhorn. The topic is not new but the wide publicity is.

He was contacted for input into the production of a Television program by the French Television Channel ARTE (now broadcasting in Germany); ARTE Title: Karthagos vergessene Krieger (Carthage’s Forgotten Warriors), in the German language, 2014. It has been broadcast to European audiences at least four times, so far.

Practically simultaneously, an American program was produced on the same topic; PBS: Carthage’s Lost Warriors, now available as a DVD in English (SEDE 6133 @ $ 19.99), © ZDF 2014. This is a reprint edition of PBS’ long-running program SECRETS OF THE DEAD and was broadcast as Episode # 3 (4/2/2014). The program was produced under the auspices of ZDF, ARTE, S4C and WNET Thirteen (New York Public Media).

And now Professor Giffhorn has introduced a brand new DVD bringing interested viewers up to date on his research: KELTISCHE KRIEGER IM ANTIKEN PERU (Celtic warriors in Ancient Peru), in the German language, ( € 17.50, available from, © SPIEGEL History, 2016. Therein is documented almost a score of coincidences between old and new World cultures on this topic - each one more astounding than the previous.

The Phoenix Television station in Germany broadcast a program Wednesday, 17 August 2016, entitled: ZDF - History Krieger aus dem Nebel - Das Geheimnis der Andean Mumien (Warriors of the Fog - The Secret of the Andean Mummies). This program in the German language documented the efforts of Dr. Peter Lerche*, a long time resident of the region of the Chachapoyas, who led an expedition to fathom just how the Chachapoyas were able to bury their dead as Mummies in caves at such heights in vertical walls without modern rock-climbing gear.

1843? Not a new topic? -- well then, what is all the furor about ? The Chachapoya culture center lies on a mountain top in the Andes at an altitude of 3,000 meters (9,843 feet). It is a Fortress with walls 20 meters high (66 feet) and 8 meters thick (26 feet) and runs for 1,200 meters (1.2 Kilometers or ¾ of a mile) that was built starting sometime after the time changeover from B.C. to A.D. (probably not later than 400 A.D.) and seems as big as Machu Picchu (which was built by the Incas a thousand years later in 1,450 A.D.). The name of the Chachapoya Fortress is Kuelap. It was discovered by a Judge named Don Juan Crisóstomo Nieto in 1843 who was trying to settle a boundry dispute by investigating on mule-back. He was the first to have estimated that the standard-sized blocks used in its construction have a volume 3 times greater than the Cheops pyramid of Egypt. They are laid in straight rows on top of each other (like we lay bricks or cement blocks but without mortar) and are not cyclopean in size as are the later Inca Monuments (some non-standard sized Inca blocks weigh tons. The later Incas became masters at trimming the odd-shaped big blocks to an exact rounded fit - also without mortar - giving extreme stability even during earthquakes).

Most all of the buildings within the Fortress are circular in form (including 415 round stone houses). The Spanish Celts built stone houses this way (all other cultures -- Greeks, Romans, Carthaginians & Phoenicians -- built their houses rectangular). It was forgotten for over a hundred years until it was investigated again in detail by Federico Kauffmann Doig in 1997. Classical Archaeologist Dr. Karin Hornig of Freiburg, Germany, characterizes these differences and their significance for the probative value of parallel cultures this way, as translated: "Many cultures are characterized by distinctive architectural forms. This applies not only to the appearance of buildings, but also for the masonry; the structure betrays its author like a giant fingerprint.  ..... Given the surprising similarities between the Fortress walls of Kuelap and those of the Iberian Peninsula one may assume an appropriate cultural influence."

* In April 1997, the Ethnologist Dr. Peter Lerche was asked to help secure a huge discovery of Mummies at Lake Condor, 80 Kilometers south of the city of Chachapoyas. In a frenzy, professional grave robbers (Huaceros) had practically destroyed the site trying to find valuables. The photos documenting the site and the damage went ‘round the World. As a result of his efforts to salvage what was left, the DISCOVERY CHANNEL and NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC produced exciting reports about the ancient culture. Additionally, in the year 2,000, the University of Vienna and the Austrian Government built a small Museum in Leymebamba where the more than 200 Mummies now repose in a climate-controlled atmosphere. Dr. Peter Lerche was elected Mayor of the Province capital Chachapoyas for the four year period 2,007-2,011.

While it is an enduring monument leaving the viewer incredulous as to how this all got constructed up there at such a height, it is still not really what all the fuss is about. The recent excitement has to do with people -- the modern descendants of the Chachapoyas. Most South American Indian Tribes have inherited dark complexions and jet-black hair. But, many Chachapoyas have light skins, blonde or reddish hair and dark brown eyes. In the media, some publications said “blue eyes” but this was a misquote. Some European Celts have have blue or green eyes with the blonde or reddish hair and fair skin. Until now, such features were passed off by the Indians themselves with a shrug saying: “We don’t know where we got this look.” Again up until now, the Archaeologists, Anthropologists and Paleontologists all said the same. Such “white” Indians are called “Gringuitos” (little Gringos) by the locals.

Modern technology has now given us the means to find out about the source of this variation from the “norm” (an anomaly). Recent research using saliva samples reveals a DNA similarity with the Celtic people of northwest Spain -- the ancient Castro Culture of Galicia near the modern Atlantic-facing Province of La Coruῆa. “Factoring in” Geography and Time, the newest DNA research techniques are able to rule-out any effect of the possible mixing of the Chachapoya Indian population with the Conquistadors or later European contacts that might be used to invalidate early old World contacts. One Reviewer of the new DVD said, as translated: “If we understand the DNA results correctly, it was mostly males who mixed with the Chachapoya.”

In the 16th Century, Spanish chroniclers writing about the era of the Incas (1,200 A.D - 1,538 A.D.) had already documented the same features (blonde or reddish hair and brown eyes and light skin). They said that while the Incas had beaten (but just barely subdued) the Chachapoyas in 1,470 A.D., they were still a fiercely independent Tribe; that their sling warriors were stalwart (strong and brave) and that the Women were very beautiful and, because of their eyes and hair and light skin, some were kidnapped to be the consorts of the Inca Rulers. They were also astounded that the Women participated equally in all events of war and peace -- a later documented Celtic trait (Indian Women usually only worked in the fields, cooked and tended the children).

The Chachapoyas, at first, thought that the Spanish Conquerers were there in 1,535 A.D. to liberate them from the Inca rule. Unbelieveably, in 1,538 A.D., 150,000 Incas were beaten by 200 Conquistadors after a one-year long battle for Cusco, the Inca capital. But, the Conquistadors had help; warriors of the Cañaris Tribe from South Equador and sling warriors from the nearby Chachapoya Tribe combined to provide a 40,000 man army that furnished tide-turning assistance. Much to their chagrin, the Chachapoyas then found out that they, also, were to be ruled by the Spaniards. Sadly, by then it didn’t matter much; after the Conquistadors followed the epidemics of Smallpox, Influenza and Measles, etc., decimating the Chachapoyas and other Tribes over the generations.

It is a fact that the area is so remote that even the Spanish Conquistadors went there as little as possible -- as a consequence, there was very little mixing of the two peoples. As a further favorable result for modern researchers, ancient Chachapoya family names are not difficult to recognize and identify for the the DNA testing - Mother, Father, Grandfather, Grandmother, etc.

And so, the hypothesis was born -- their ancestors must have come from the old World on a one-way trip and then mixed with the Chachapoyas. Now, just exactly when and how did the ancestors of those Chachapoyas (present in the 16th Century) get to northwest Peru and almost two miles straight-up in the Andes?

Piecing Together the Chronicle of the Immigrants

Before the fall of Carthage to Rome in the Third and final Punic War (146 B.C.), the Romans had furthered their territorial gains by occupying Spain beginning in 200 B.C.. In the northwest of Spain was located the Celtic Castro Culture of Galicia which covered the modern Province of La Coruῆa on the Atlantic coast. The Balearic Islands (Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza and Formentera) were occupied later in 123 B.C.. Here lived the stalwart warriors whose weapons, greatly feared by the Romans, were “slings” (slingshots) of deadly aim that could send a rock projectile hurtling their way almost the size of an Orange.

Part of the hypothesis is that the Atlantic coastal people, rather than letting themselves be crushed by the Roman occupation, chose to be free. After all, who would want to be crucified (an ugly, specifically ROMAN, punishment) for some infraction afoul of Roman Law? They connived to get hooked-up with the survivors of Carthage (with their nautical know-how), and taking along some fierce sling warriors from the Baleric Islands, immigrated to a land reputed to be beyond the high seas.

Let me say that none of the ancient writers such as Hesiod, Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, Pausanius, or Diodorus Siculus could say exactly what was going on beyond the “Pillars of Hercules” (Gibraltar). It was well known that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians both had demanded strict secrecy (upon penalty of death) from their Sailors about routes and destinations. One famous story concerns a Captain on the way to the “Tin Isles” (Great Britain) who was followed by a Roman vessel. He beached his ship in northern Spain and burnt it. After he and his crew made their way back to home Port, his Superiors gladly paid for a new ship and “patted him on the back” to boot for upholding the regulations.

But rumor is as old as the Human Race. Usually there is a kernel of truth behind each fable. And if “wild travel tales” surfaced they soon became part of the cultural tradition . . . even without the documentation or confirmation of any famous ancient writer. And the subdued Phoenicians and Carthaginians were no longer in control of the Sailors so there were no more deadly Secrets. It would not be so “far out” to believe that a folk gazing often out at the wild Atlantic from northwestern Spain would be willing to “risk it” when traveling with the very Mariners who possessed the Secrets and who would be protected by island sling warriors at their destination.

Dare we speculate, that for the next few years, whenever the Romans weren’t looking, a ship or two embarked on the trip. That could mean, over time, the departure of hundreds of immigrants all carrying the same specific cultural traditions and engineering know-how. Or maybe, as the DNA results suggest, only male adventurers - no families. But where to ?

The closest landfall was what is now called South America; namely Brazil. A stopping point was an Island just off the coast called Marajó located in the estuary of the Amazon River. Pre-Columbian ceramics appeared there suddenly in great numbers about 2,000 years ago and were found by Archaeologists to have the same spiral designs as pottery from the Celts in northwestern Spain (this ceramic “pottery”, when used for carrying water on ships, out-performed the mildewed wooden casks of Columbus by a wide margin -- because the contents corrupted slower. Incidentally, this use might account for the great numbers found). It was also established that local Indians of the island cremated their dead and buried their ashes in urns. This was the principal burial form of the Spanish Celts and was unusual for Indians for this time period in South America.

After a while there, the stream of immigrants moved on up the Amazon River leaving traces of their passage. There is a place called Pedro do inga. A flood of epigraphics by the hundreds is displayed on hard gneiss rock. These could only have been made with a tempered steel chisel -- something not available in South America until after the Conquistadors and the 16th Century. The patina shows them to be at least hundreds of years older.

At a tributary of the Amazon River, namely the Rio Guaporé, an ax head was found when a draining ditch was being dug. There was an animal head cast on it as an ornament on the opposite side of the cutting edge. The University of São Paulo failed in exactly dating the metal but the C14 analysis of the wooden handle remains showed it was taken from a live tree about 500 A.D or 1,000 years before Columbus. Analysis of the metal showed it was 61% Copper and 39 % Zink. This was brass and they concluded that it could not have been created by the local Indians of that time period. The smelting process to obtain it was known in the Mediterranean area around 300 B.C. by the Romans who made coins from it. Incidentally, there is no such animal in South America (as depicted by the casting - somewhat like a horned-sheep or goat or deer). The usual indigenous animals used in decorations were Lamas, Condors, big Snakes, Jaguars and Apes.

The Coincidences

In our text, we have already identified a few items common to the Chachapoyas and the Celtiberians:


Trepanation. This medical technique is amazing and appalling at the same time. Ostensibly, it was done by ancient folk to let the evil spirits out or it could have been to relieve the presure from an injury to the skull by a sling projectile. World-wide investigation of ancient skulls reveals that this was not necessarily a rare thing and often the patient lived and the wound healed. The skulls of the ancient Chachapoyas displaying small holes in the bone were somewhat different. The hole was tapered and conical. This means that the borer was shaped larger at its base and smaller at the point. The question became, where in the World could this special technique have come from ? The Incas also practiced trepanation but this source of knowledge was discarded early on because their culture was so much newer - even though they also used a conical borer (they added another facet - they bored holes in a circle and then lifted the bone plate out). No other place in the Americas was this medical technique found. In Europe and the Middle East, this medical operation has been known for about two thousand years - a similarly altered skull was found in a collection from a Celtic Tribe from the Balkan Peninsula - but there they used a special instrument called a “Crowntrepan” that was invented by Greek Doctors about 500 B.C.. But then the astonishing discovery. A collection of skulls located at the University of Barcelona from Son Real, the most important ancient excavation of the Island of Majorca, showed the same features. The Spanish Neuro-Surgeon and Paleontologist Doménec Campillo was amazed at the photographs made of the Chachapoya skulls and their exactly duplicated technique. He allowed as how such Trepanation was also practiced on the mainland opposite this Balearic island. How then, can this be called an accidental coincidence? Thus, Trepanation findings are a strong support for the hypothesis: Their ancestors must have come from the old World on a one-way trip and then mixed with the Chachapoyas.

Wearing Slings around head. War was part of the life of the Chachapoya. Not just against enemies but also internal strife was evident. What were their weapons? The Chachapoya used a different kind of weapon - the sling (shot). It was used by the Celts of the Balearic Islands. It was also well known in the entire ancient Mediterranean area as far back as 2,000 B.C. but was never known in the Amazon basin area. The Amazon Indians used blow-guns, bows and arrows. At higher ground above the bogs and swamps, sling ammunition was cheap and the sling was easy to fabricate. Over the years, it was formed in different materials and used in different ways. Slings from different Museums were compared.
The U.S. National Museum in Washington D.C. has a collection of pre-Columbian slings. They were placed there by the renowned Archaeologist Philip Ainsworth Means. He concluded that the sling was never found north of Mexico and California and never south from north Chile and north Argentina and never east of the Andes. He zeroed-in on western South America or northern Peru.
The Incas also used slings but they were fabricated differently. A modern sport sling-Champion was consulted from Majorca. He was astounded to find that the Chachapoya slings found in the early graves were exactly like his own winning sling (slings from the Chachapoya Museum in Leymebamba and those of Ibiza and Majorca were identical). The modern sling-Champion demonstrated how a sling can be worn wrapped around the head three times (as three “belts”). The conclusion: that the sling(shots) from Majorca were brought as preferred weapons to the Chachapoyas area over two thousand years ago and that this was the starting point for the further spread of the slingshot in America. Thus, sling technology is strong support for the hypothesis: Their ancestors must have come from the old World on a one-way trip and then mixed with the Chachapoyas.

Tuberculosis. As a modest “thank-you” for the financing and building of a small Museum in Leymebamba in the year 2,000, a dozen Lake Condor Mummies were “loaned” to the University of Vienna for research. In 2,006, came the electrifying Press announcement: traces of Tuberculosis were found. As of 2,003, the state of medical technology facilitated identifying Tuberculosis cases from Italy and Egypt and could go as far back as six thousand years. The dating of the Chachapoya cases put them well before Columbus. So, how did it get there. They first thought of the Bering Strait migration which started about 15,000 years ago but ended 11,000 years ago because the Ice-age ended and the route became permanently submerged. If the infection was brought in over this route, there should have been traces of it found at different times and places. Down to 5,000 years ago in the new World, no Tuberculosis had been found. It came later. Therefore the Bering Strait thesis was ruled out, once and for all. Then they thought of the Vikings who landed about 1,000 A.D., but to their surprise, the oldest case was not found in North America (where the Vikings landed) but was found in South America in a member of the western Nazca Culture (southern Peru, 100 B.C. to 800 A.D.) who lived about 2,000 years ago. So, once and for all, the Vikings were ruled out. In eastern South America and in the entire Amazon basin there were no cases of Tuberculosis until after the arrival of the Conquistadors. Yet, Tuberculosis did arrive about 2,000 years ago to western South America. In the course of time, northwesten Peru and the Lake Condor Chachapoyas got infected also. Then it was discovered by the Paleopathologist Professor Dr. Dr. Michael Schultz (President of the Paleopathology Association of the USA) and reported to Dr. Hans Giffhorn that Mr. Gerald Conologue from the Quinnipiac University of Hamden, Connecticut had been quietly X-Raying the Lake Condor Mummies from the Leymebamba Museum. He made 900 exposures from 188 Mummies in 2,000 and 2,001. Along with the year 2,006 bone Tuberculosis results announced by the University of Vienna, it was verified that he had found lung Tuberculosis. But the shocker was the rate - up to 20% of the Mummies had had TB. In medical terms, this is an explosion of cases. We can digest the fact that there is a strong probability that the TB infection came from the old World - but how could the carriers, themselves, survive the trip? The researchers had the answer to that. A people who raise cattle over the centuries somehow can become partially immunized against TB. They can carry it without suffering the ravages of the disease. The Celtiberians from northestern Spain fit the profile - raising cattle and animal husbandry were their forte since 2,000 B.C.. Even now, they are a leading producer of Milk and Milk products. Thus, Tuberculosis findings are a strong support for the hypothesis: Their ancestors must have come from the old World on a one-way trip and then mixed with the Chachapoyas.

Burying the Dead as a Mummy. We have already pointed out that the natives of the landfall Island Marajó were found to be cremating their dead and burying their ashes in urns. Dr. Giffhorn asserted that this was the principal burial form of the Spanish Celts and was unusual for this time period in South America for local Tribes. Obviously, this was one ancient native culture yielding to another (arriving) culture for one reason or another. . . . . perhaps out of awe or respect. Why then, the sudden turn-about by the immigrants after arriving at the Chachapoya area and the creation of effigies and burials of Mummies within caves on mountain sides at inaccessible heights? Perhaps it was because of the strong belief of the indigenous Peruvian people (also embraced by the Chachapoyas) in an after life.

The Conquistadors had discovered this belief and had flaunted it in the face of the multitudes of Incas. The last Inca emperor Atahualpa, whose mother had been a captured Chachapoya, was murdered by strangulation on 26 July 1,533 after being baptized. His body was then burned by the harsh Spaniards because life after death was impossible without it. This had the desired result - it struck horror in the Incas.

In other words, the opposite happened here - the Celtiberians yielded their own cremation-funeral and urn- burial practices over to the mummification practices of the host Chachapoya Tribe to give due respect to their strong belief in life after death. One curious thing, though, the Chachapoyas positioned their mummies in Embryo form - there is no evidence that the Celts or Carthaginians ever fashioned their dead this way. Thus, Mumification findings are only a mild support for the hypothesis: Their ancestors must have come from the old World on a one-way trip and then mixed with the Chachapoyas.

Wall Zig-zag Decoration. The stone walls in the Chachappoya area were often emblazoned with a design that had no other function except as decoration. It was like a Roman Numeral five (V). Sometimes, sideways. It appeared on door-frames and other places. The same design has been found, used the same way, in Celtic excavations and reconstructions in Ireland and Wales and Spain.  See below:


Thus, Zig-Zag Decorations are a mild support for the hypothesis: Their ancestors must have come from the old World on a one-way trip and then mixed with the Chachapoyas.

Trophy Heads Cult-Skulls. The cutting off of the heads of enemies and displaying them prominently as trophies was a cult of the Chachapoya. It was the same with the Spanish Celts. Both cultures displayed actual skulls hung in meeting places, on sarcophaguses, and decorating the outside of stone houses. The picture art of both cultures shows separated heads, frequently.

Trophy Heads Cult-Engravings. The head cult went one step further with both cultures. Facial portraits were sculpted in relief and appear in walls and monuments and buildings. The Spanish Archaeologists call these: Cabezas cortadas (chopped-off heads). These half-reliefs of both cultures show perfectly round eyes and prominent noses.Thus, Cult skulls and Cult engravings findings are a mild support for the hypothesis: Their ancestors must have come from the old World on a one-way trip and then mixed with the Chachapoyas.

Folk Music. At village festivals in the Chachapoya area of Peru, the people dance to the music of a musician who holds a flute in one hand and plays a melody of only four notes while simultaneously beating on a drum fastened to the hip with the other hand. The residents say that this art of music is played only here; nowhere else. Dr. Giffhorn asserts that the same melody is recognizable and is still to be found in the Mediterranean area on the Balearic island of Ibiza. It is called “La Rondada” and is played exactly in the same way - one hand for the flute and one hand for the drum. He further says that this rural folk music is originally from the Carthaginians, the former rulers of Ibiza which he documented in a Bavarian TV (BR 3) program in 2,001 entitled: “Ibiza - Rätsel der Vergangenheit” (Ibiza - Riddle of the Past). As graves showed, the Panflute was also used by the Chachapoyas, long before the rise of the Incas. The Celtic sheepherders of Ibiza also play an archaic form of the Panflute called the Xeremia. Thus, traditional folk music is a mild support for the hypothesis: Their ancestors must have come from the old World on a one-way trip and then mixed with the Chachapoyas.


I have shown 16 items that bind the new World Chachapoya culture to the old World. Seven of them I identified as STRONG proof for the hypothesis. Nine items, I have identified as milder proof of the hypothesis but still very significant.


There are stronger conclusions to come from all of this -- It probably took centuries for the blending of the Celtiberian and Chachapoya cultures to be so complete that a later researcher would have great difficulty in determining which was dominant at any given time . . . . or from whence each came. It is evident that the Celtiberians and Chachapoyas lived side-by-side in mutual respect of their cultures with daily as well as long-range give and take; not just passively “mixing into” the population. They probably fought enemies together with the (minority) Celtiberians taking Wives and becoming full members of the Tribe with a high status of respect and admiration. They built massive structures (for defense) and housing areas with intelligent sewage systems and mountain-side terraces and irrigation projects and a network of roads paved with dressed stones together; each relying on the unique talents and traditions of the other.

And in both cultures, there has never been any trace of a ruling elite or a religious elite with a drive to build ostentatious and overwhelming monuments, as did, for instance, the later Incas.

Freedom from rule seemed to be their joint goal.  
" The pictures are enthralling. Use the following LINK to Google Images. Then type in the words “chachapoya peru” or “kuelap”  and sit back to view the hundreds of images that show up.


After the show, then type in the words: “Spanish Celts” and be astounded at the architectural similarities whenever buildings or monuments or ruins are shown."

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